By K Moriyasu

Gauge conception is now famous as probably the most innovative discoveries in physics because the improvement of quantum mechanics. This primer explains how and why gauge conception has dramatically replaced our view of the basic forces of nature. The textual content is designed for the non-specialist. a brand new, intuitive process is used to make the information of gauge thought available to either scientists and scholars with just a heritage in quantum mechanics. Emphasis is put on the physics instead of the formalism.

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Therefore, one cannot speak of angular momentum operators, but must replace them with the more abstract concept of group generators. This is more than a mere change of labels because the generators have mathematical properties which were previously ignored in quantum mechanics but are very useful in gauge theory. In particular, we will see that the proper understanding of gauge invariance leads naturally to a geometrical description of gauge theory that is both highly intuitive and strongly resembles the familiar geometrical picture of general relativity.

Unfortunately, for the reader who wishes to first understand the basic physical ideas behind gauge theory, the published literature can present a daunting challenge. The reason for the difficulty is that gauge theory represents a totally new synthesis of quantum mechanics and symmetry ideas which have been applied to the entire field of elementary particle physics. I believe that gauge theory can be appreciated by the non-expert; that is the raison d’etre for this primer. In order to emphasize the physics of gauge theory rather than the mathematical formalism, I have used a new intuitive approach and designed the text primarily for the reader with only a background in quantum mechanics.

2). The factor S(x) is defined for convenience to equal unity at the position x. The scale factor at x + dx is then given by The norm of the vector at x + dx is then equal to the product of Eqs. (II - 6) and (II - 7). Keeping only first order terms in dx, we obtain after a little algebra, Fig. 2 The scale factor S(x) in Weyl’s gauge theory is illustrated by the change in length of metre stick from x to x + dx. For the special case of a constant vector, we see that the norm has changed by an amount The derivative ∂μS is the new mathematical “connection” associated with the gauge change.

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