By Roger Price
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Extra info for An Economic History of Modern France, 1730–1914
Les routes de France depuis les origines jusqu 'a nos jours, 19 SO. , La noblesse bretonne en 18e siecle, 2 vols, 1966. , Les Chemins de fer fram;ais, 4 vols, 1884. , France: A Geographical Survey, 1969. , Exode rural et migrations interieures en France. L 'example de Ia Vienne et du Poitou-Charentes, Poitiers, 1971. , La vie rurale en basse-Auvergne au 1se siecle, 1965. , Les transports de marchandises par fer, route et eau depuis 1850, 1960. , La navigation ii vapeur sur Ia Saone et Ia Rhone, 1962.
The series of general laws, particularly those of 1764 and 1770, designed to increase freedom and the flexible response of commerce and agriculture were thus neutralised by edicts made to meet particular shortages. On the other hand restrictive legislation often failed in its objectives, since a coalition of rural interests could make effective controls difficult to maintain. Movements by sea could most easily be observed by the Government, but even here local influence could secure exemptions.
From a charge of2 fr. 50 francs in 1868. From 9,014 telegrams in 1851, the number sent rose to 3,503,182 in 1869. In combination with the railway the telegraph enormously facilitated the development of centralised political and economic controls, and transformed day-to-day administrative and commercial practices. 58% This creation both modified the use made of other means of transport and caused an unprecedented increase in the volume of traffic which cannot simply be explained in terms of a transfer from other forms of transport.