By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)

Biological keep watch over is likely one of the such a lot promising equipment for regulate of pests (including vectors), illnesses and weeds. during this booklet ecological and societal facets are for the 1st time taken care of jointly. In an ecological procedure the purpose is to guage the importance of convinced organic houses like biodiversity and usual habitats. additionally, it is very important see organic keep watch over from an natural (or ecological) farming standpoint. In a societal method phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are known as major for organic creation and human welfare.

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And Runge-Metzger, A. 1998. Kosten und Nutzen des chemischen Pflanzenschutzes in der deutschen Landwirtschaft aus gesamtwirtschaftlicher Sicht. Agrarökonomische Monographien und Sammelwerke. Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany. 254 pp. Webber, H. J. 1967. History and development of the citrus industry. In The Citrus Industry, Vol. 1, W. J. D. Batchelor (eds), University of California Press, 1-39. Webster, J. P. G. and Bowles, R. G. 1996. Estimating the economic costs and benefits of pesticide use in apples.

Biological Control 10, 143-149. van Lenteren, J. , Hokkanen H. M. , et al. 2003. Environmental risk assessment of exotic natural enemies used in inundative biological control. BioControl 48, 3-38. van Lenteren, J. , Hokkanen, H. M. T. and Loomans, A. J. M. 2006. Assessing risks of releasing exotic biological control agents. Annu. Rev. Entomol. (in press). , Becker, H. and Runge-Metzger, A. 1998. Kosten und Nutzen des chemischen Pflanzenschutzes in der deutschen Landwirtschaft aus gesamtwirtschaftlicher Sicht.

However, intramammary applications of living organisms are not possible, which excludes biocontrol in the udder. 2. House and stable flies House flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) present an important hygiene and animal welfare problem associated with animal holdings. The immature stages of both species develop in organic material such as humid feed, deep litter or the solid layer on top of slurry. Adult house flies also feed on those materials, whereas adult stable flies are bloodsucking.

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