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Amateur Telescope Making by Albert G. Ingalls

By Albert G. Ingalls

Definitive publication on beginner telescope making. includes plans and idea on various types. topics lined: Newtonian Telescope reflect Making; Optical checking out; Workshop knowledge; and Observatory constructions.

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When the NPL machine was first operated, the unflipped atoms were detected, which meant that the current was least when the frequency was at resonance. ) In later atomic clocks the microwave frequency was automatically locked to the caesium frequency, but in the NPL machine the adjustment had to be done manually. 13), one of Essen and Parry’s first tasks was to measure the length of the second in terms of the caesium transition. They found that 1 second (a mean solar second, defined by the Royal Greenwich Observatory and broadcast as radio time signals) was equal to 9192 631 830 cycles of the caesium frequency, with an uncertainty of ten cycles either way.

And apart from its bigger brother francium—which is so unstable that its atoms decay in less than half an hour—caesium is the biggest of all the atoms. As a more or less direct consequence of this, its outer solo electron is only loosely Atomic clocks 41 attached. It is easier to knock an electron off a caesium atom than any other atom, and this makes it easy to detect. So following Rabi’s address in 1945 it was obvious to all that the way towards an atomic clock lay in exploiting the unique properties of the caesium atom.

This is the “beam” of caesium atoms. These atoms are a mixture; about half will be in the lower hyperfine state and half in the upper state, and the first job is to separate them. This is done by passing the beam through a specially shaped magnet, a technique devised by Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach in the early 1920s to study the structure of atoms. Since the caesium atoms themselves are magnetic, they are deflected by the magnetic field according to their energy states and emerge from the magnet in two slightly different directions, one for the lower state and one for the upper state.

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