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Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy by K. Siegbahn

By K. Siegbahn

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At 17 MeV show good agreement with theory. For1 very thin foils, the theory mentioned above is not valid as shown by Knop et al? The reason is that the inner electrons do not contribute if the width of the energy distribution becomes of the order of the ionization energy. It is noteworthy that the most probable energy loss does not show the relativistic increase because of being exactly Compensated by tfee polarization effect. 3 5 has been The energy distribution of mono-energetic electrons passing through a foil 3 4experimentally by White 3 6 and Millingtdn, Paul and Reich , Chen and investigated Warshaw , and by Hanson et α/.

P A U L a foil is made up of a large number of small energy losses due to excitation and ionization of the atoms. It has been shown experimentally that for a large range of electron energies, at least from 5 keV to 17 MeV, the energy w required to form an ion 39 and is not very in a gas is nearly independent of the energy of the primary electron different for different elements. However, as Jesse and Sadauskis have shown, the energy w depends very strongly on small impurities of the gases. Therefore the older values of w are not well defined and only approximately valid for gases with normal 04 1 4.

Ovadia a n d J. S. Laughlin, Phys. R e v . 8 8 (1952) 165. D . R. C o r s o n and R. B . Brode, Phys. R e v . 5 3 (1938) 7 7 3 . CH. I Fig. 19. INTERACTION OF ELECTRONS 19 A l u m i n u m absorption curves for various electron energies. The curves are normalized at the practical range R . p Intensity units are arbitrary. The insert s h o w s the end point region on an expanded scale. F r o m Hereford and Swann, Phys. Rev. 78 (1950) 727 20 G. K N O P A N D W . P A U L 47 CH. 3-1 MeV. The solid curve represents the 48 A lengths R = § 0 άΕ/(άΕ/άχ) calculated according to Moller, Rossi and Greisen.

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