By Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

The volumes during this sequence conceal the development and innovation in optical and electron microscopy at a primary point. it's aimed toward microscopists and researchers not just drawn to microscope instrumentation but in addition in purposes starting from organic options to fabrics study and business inspection

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Quantum noise If one illuminates a plane divided into pixels of equal area and counts the number of electrons hitting each pixel, one finds a Poisson distribution. With a mean number N and a variance AN2 = N there results a noise contrast between different pixels given by ΔΝ/Ν = N~1/2. In an electron image this noise is added to the true electron image, thereby burying details with a contrast weaker than N~1/2. Consequently, the noise contrast has to be reduced as far as possible by summing as many electrons as possible in every pixel (Boersch, 1950).

Following the Abbe theory of imaging, this can be accomplished while proceeding from the object plane through the imaging lens to the image plane in the following steps (Hanssen and Morgenstern, 1965; Hanssen, 1971) (Fig. 1). First, after interaction of the electrons with the object structure, the incident plane wave, modulated according to o(r) = a(r)exp(i(r)) by the object, may be decomposed into an ensemble of diffracted waves emerging from the object at different diffraction angles oe. Each of them corresponds to a cosinusoidal elementary grating of spatial frequency R contained in the object structure; they are focused onto the relevant spectral points in the back focal plane by the action of the objective lens.

However, it does not make sense to choose it any higher, because, due to the limited number of pixels, the field of view would be further restricted; moreover, a quite unnecessary higher instrumental stability would be required. The finer fringes have to be enlarged further for photographical recording and accordingly the exposure time increases. ELECTRON IMAGE PLANE OFF-AXIS HOLOGRAPHY 51 Experimentally, the carrier spatial frequency is set by means of the filament voltage of the electron biprism (Fig.

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