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Advances in optical and electron microscopy by Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

By Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

The volumes during this sequence conceal the development and innovation in optical and electron microscopy at a primary point. it really is geared toward microscopists and researchers not just drawn to microscope instrumentation but additionally in purposes starting from organic thoughts to fabrics examine and commercial inspection

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In that case, for any given carrier spatial frequency the width of the hologram can be extended to the limit given by the degree of coherence. back focal plane biprism hologram FIG. 14 Fringe spacing and width of the interference field. The two partial waves deflected by the angle y = y0 U{ by the electron biprism overlap at the angle ß in the hologram plane, forming an interference pattern of width Δ with a fringe spacing σ. At given distances a and b, Δ and σ cannot be chosen independently. H.

Loss of spatial frequencies by defocusing If the hologram is not taken in the Gaussian image plane but in a plane at a distance D, the contributions from higher spatial frequencies to a band adjacent to the shadow of the filament are shifted outside the hologram. Consequently, they are lost after reconstruction. On the other hand, some spatial frequency components not belonging to the field of view are recorded (Fig. 16). 1 nm, the width of the disturbed areas amounts to only a few nanometres. At larger defocusing, however, the resolution in the whole hologram may be considerably reduced.

13 The role of the carrier spatial frequency as seen in the Fourier spectrum of the hologram, (a) Generally, the width of the autocorrelation FT(A2(r)) of a strong amplitude component reaches out to 2Rmax. To make sure that the reconstructable spectrum centred around Rc can be completely isolated without truncation, the carrier spatial frequency must meet the condition Rc ^ 3Rmax; in the /^-direction, parallel to the biprism filament, there is no such restriction, (b) The amplitude component is often so weak that Rc ^ 2Rmax is sufficient, (c) For pure phase objects Rc ^ Rmax suffices because the autocorrelation disappears.

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