By Giuseppe Fusco
Adaptive Voltage regulate in energy structures, a self-contained combination of concept and novel software, deals in-depth remedy of such adaptive keep an eye on schemes. assurance strikes from power-system-modelling difficulties via illustrations of the most adaptive regulate platforms, together with self-tuning, model-reference and nonlinearities reimbursement to a close description of layout equipment: Kalman filtering, parameter-identification algorithms and discrete-time controller layout are all represented. Case reports handle functions matters within the implementation of adaptive voltage keep watch over.
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Additional info for Adaptive Voltage Control in Power Systems: Modelling, Design and Applications (Advances in Industrial Control)
Y(tf,k+2nh ) T Hk+2nh = hk+1 . . hk+2nh υ(tf,k+2nh ) = . (tf,k+1 ) − 2nh −1 hT w(tf,k+2nh −i ) k+1 i=1 T . . 13) are observable if and only if HT k+2nh Hk+2nh is a full rank matrix, that is the set of 2nh subsequent vectors hk+1 , . . hk+2nh represents an independent set in IR2nh . From Theorem. 1 it is trivial to derive the following simple yet conservative and suﬃcient condition to guarantee that the sequence of Rk is upper-bounded and presents stable asymptotic behavior: TKf < π 2 n2h ω In the remainder it is assumed that the observability conditions required by Theorem.
Hereafter, in each simulation study a polynomial T (z −1 ) has been assigned so that the closed-loop step response has a rise time between 10% and 90% equal to about 40 ms, and a settling time at ±2% equal to about 70 ms, corresponding to respectively two and three and half times the fundamental frequency cycle. Concerning the implementation of the voltage regulator scheme, it is worth recalling that the control input u(tc,k ) is saturated between 0 and 1 due to the presence of the SVS actuator.
It can be easily recognized that v0,1 (tc,k ) is a step function. v0,1 (tc,k ) u(tc,k ) z −d B(z −1 ) A(z −1 ) + v1 (tc,k ) Fig. 8. 16) where −1 −nB + B + (z −1 ) = 1 + b+ + . . + b+ nB + z 1 z −1 −nB − B − (z −1 ) = b0 + b− + . . + b− nB − z 1 z and nB = nB + + nB − . Usually it is realistic to assume nB − = 0, except for some speciﬁc cases, such as voltage regulation at midpoint of a long transmission line , which yield to a nonminimum phase model (nB − = 0). 14) approximates the relationship between u(tc,k ) and v1 (tc,k ) at the controlled node.