By Kathrin Zickermann

In around the German Sea: Early glossy Scottish Connections with the broader Elbe-Weser zone Zickermann analyses the economic, maritime and armed forces kinfolk among Scotland and the German towns (Hamburg, Bremen) and territories (Bremen and Verden, Holstein, Braunschweig-Lüneburg) situated along the decrease components of the rivers Elbe and Weser. in keeping with a wealth of British, German and Scandinavian archival fabric, the learn demonstrates the significance of the zone for Scottish commodity alternate and community construction throughout political borders, when contributing considerably to our figuring out of the formation of Scottish groups in a foreign country. It additionally indicates that Scottish advertisement, political, army and spiritual actions in the area – which featured a Danish-Norwegian and Swedish size - have been intertwined and can't be studied in isolation.

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Extra resources for Across the German Sea: Early Modern Scottish Connections with the Wider Elbe-Weser Region

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In addition the company was granted the permission to bury its dead in Hamburg’s churches and graveyards and no minister of Hamburg was allowed to attack the Adventurers on the basis of their faith. For further analysis of the contract see Hitzigrath, Die Handelsbeziehungen, 16–21. 39 Reißmann, Die hamburgische Kaufmannschaft, 55–56, 156. Hamburg’s society of merchants trading with England (Englandfahrer) was exclusively of social function during the seventeenth century. Only eight of the 144 merchants trading with England between 1644 and 1646 were its members.

55 Nevertheless, the city’s ascent was not without difficulties and her status and security were by no means always guaranteed. The dependency on the river and free access to the North Sea made Hamburg vulnerable, not least due to environmental impacts. The lower reaches of the Elbe became frozen in the winter months, preventing ships from entering or leaving the port. Adverse winds from the east or west also delayed ships. Most importantly however, the aforementioned wars and conflicts brought not only advantages, but also serious problems for the city, her inhabitants and the surrounding territories.

The Dutch and English merchants in Hamburg were among those who held a particular interest in the river. Their presence increased the competition for free access to the Elbe, especially at times when their home countries were at war with each other (1652–1654; 1665–1667; 1672–1674). The protection of the Merchant Adventurers from internal and external conflicts was a major concern for official English and Scottish residents, who represented the Stuart monarchy within the city. 57 There were however several factors which prevented forceful proceedings against the Hamburg merchant fleet.

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