By Leslie A. Schuster
During this learn of the existence and paintings of Saint-Nazaire's shipbuilding employees within the 30 years ahead of global battle I, Schuster indicates that the results of commercial construction for staff differed sharply in response to their assets and reviews. She info the competing identities and divergent values maintained by way of shipbuilding employees, demonstrating that they have been fostered via the interplay among country courses, commercial construction, and the traditions pursued within the neighborhood realm. 3rd Republic financial regulations for shipbuilding promoted unemployment and employee dependence on country officers over union leaders, and the asymmetric program of capitalist equipment of creation intended a number of office studies that additional undercut organization.
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Additional info for A Workforce Divided: Community, Labor, and the State in Saint-Nazaire's Shipbuilding Industry, 1880-1910
ADLA 1M2309 "Sous-Prefet," 11 January 1879. 53. Penhouet had been reopened by the Transat in the late 1870s and employed 800-1,000 "workers of diverse professions" for repair and maintenance work. ADLA 1M520 "Commissaire special," 22 January 1878. 54. Recall that with free trade regulations of 1866, new competition from foreign shippers, declining revenues, and allegations of corporate irregularities, the Transat's capital had been depleted, Penhouet shut down, and shipping operations jeopardized.
The majority of citywide celebrations and festivals focused on shipbuilding and maritime hallmarks, such as the annual Great Maritime Week. Organized, sponsored, or funded by the shipyards, these events came to impose a notion of community identity fashioned by the shipyards and by business leaders. Occurring several times a year, these celebrations included port inaugurations, ship launchings, and receptions for the crew and officers of foreign vessels. They attracted thousands of participants and may have been the only occasions when workers and bourgeoisie gathered for the same event, though festival planners took care to segregate the two classes with different activities.
32 A Workforce Divided 33. Guy P. Palmade, French Capitalism in the Nineteenth Century, translated by Graeme M. Holmes (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1972), 147-148. In healthier economic times, the Pereires would have turned to the Credit Mobilier to bail out the Transat, but the financial house was itself in dire straits. With shares falling from 1,982 francs to 140 francs in less than one year, the banking institution could not salvage itself, much less throw a lifeline to the shipper. 34. " 35.