By Carlton J. H. Hayes
Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) was once additionally positive: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with no predicament; in go back for this concession England reduced the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 used to be no longer destructive both, for it demonstrated universal exchange laws, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the simply own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which were inaugurated (1603) via the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded below the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies below the identify of the dominion of serious Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); endured Decline of Royal strength Upon the loss of life of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: in keeping with the Act of payment (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the recent king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the advanced traditions of parliamentary govt, was once neither capable nor fearful to rule, yet used to be content material in simple terms to reign. The company of management, for that reason, was once passed over to a gaggle of ministers who strove not just to delight their royal grasp yet to keep the good-will of the fundamental get together in Parliament. Sidenote: upward thrust of the cupboard considering this tradition, with the various customs that have grown up approximately it, has turn into a so much crucial a part of the govt. of the uk this present day, and has been copied in recent years by means of many different international locations, it is very important comprehend its early background. Even earlier than the accession of the Tudors, the good Council of nobles and prelates which had steered and assisted early kings in issues of management had surrendered such a lot of its real services to a ranking or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip turned unwieldy,...
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THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. Cambridge Modern History , Vol. I (1902), ch. ix, a political sketch; James (Viscount) Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire , new ed. revised (1911); William Coxe, History of the House of Austria , Bohn edition, 4 vols. (1893-1894), a century-old work but still useful for Habsburg history; Sidney Whitman, Austria (1899), and, by the same author, The Realm of the Habsburgs (1893) 5 Kurt Kaser, Deutsche Geschichte zur Zeit Maximilians I, 1486-1519 (1912), an excellent study appearing in ”Bibliothek deutscher Geschichte,” edited by Von Zwiedineck-S¨ udenhorst; Franz Krones, Handbuch der 33 Geschichte Oesterreichs von der altesten Zeit , 5 vols.
Bain, Slavonic Europe: a Political History of Poland and Russia from 1447 to 1796 (1908), ch. i-iv; T. Schiemann, Russland, Polen, und Livland bis ins 17ten Jahrhundert , 2 vols. (1886-1887). Norway: H. H. Boyesen, The History of Norway (1886), a brief popular account in ”Story of the Nations” Series. Muscovy: V. O. Kliuchevsky, A History of Russia , trans. with some abridgments by C. J. Hogarth, 3 vols. to close of seventeenth century (1911-1913), latest and, despite faulty translation, most authoritative work on early Russian history now available in English; Alfred Rambaud, Histoire de la Russie depuis les origines jusqu’`a nos jours , 6th ed.
44 [Sidenote: Regulative] The most important duty of the gild had been the regulation of the home market. Burdensome restrictions were laid upon the stranger who attempted to utilize the advantages of the market without sharing the expense of maintenance. No goods were allowed to be carried away from the city if the townsmen wished to buy; and a tax, called in France the octroi , was levied on goods brought into the town. ] and ”regrating” (retailing at higher than market price). The dishonest green grocer was not allowed to use a peck-measure with false bottom, for weighing and measuring were done by officials.