By Carlton J. H. Hayes

Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) was once additionally useful: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with out obstacle; in go back for this concession England decreased the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 used to be no longer damaging both, for it validated universal alternate laws, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the simply own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which have been inaugurated (1603) through the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded lower than the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies lower than the identify of the dominion of significant Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); endured Decline of Royal energy Upon the demise of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: according to the Act of cost (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the hot king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the advanced traditions of parliamentary executive, was once neither capable nor nervous to rule, yet was once content material in simple terms to reign. The company of management, hence, used to be passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to delight their royal grasp yet to continue the good-will of the fundamental occasion in Parliament. Sidenote: upward push of the cupboard when you consider that this custom, with the various customs that have grown up approximately it, has turn into a so much crucial a part of the govt of the uk this day, and has been copied lately by means of many different nations, it is very important comprehend its early historical past. Even sooner than the accession of the Tudors, the good Council of nobles and prelates which had instructed and assisted early kings in concerns of management had surrendered so much of its real services to a rating or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip grew to become unwieldy,...

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Rising from the midst of tumble-down dwellings might stand a magnificent cathedral, town-hall, or gild building. Here and there a prosperous merchant would have his luxurious home, built in what we now call the Gothic style, with pointed windows and gables, and, to save space in a walled town, with the second story projecting out over the street. The streets were usually in deplorable condition. There might be one or two broad highways, but the rest were mere alleys, devious, dark, and dirty. Often their narrowness made them impassable for wagons.

1886-1887). Norway: H. H. Boyesen, The History of Norway (1886), a brief popular account in ”Story of the Nations” Series. Muscovy: V. O. Kliuchevsky, A History of Russia , trans. with some abridgments by C. J. Hogarth, 3 vols. to close of seventeenth century (1911-1913), latest and, despite faulty translation, most authoritative work on early Russian history now available in English; Alfred Rambaud, Histoire de la Russie depuis les origines jusqu’`a nos jours , 6th ed. completed to ´ 1913 by Emile Haumant (1914), a brilliant work, of which the portion down to 1877 has been trans.

I-iv, brilliant and scholarly; A. D. Innes, History of England and the British Empire (1914), Vol. II, ch. , 3 vols. (1910-1912), Vol. I, Book V valuable for social conditions under Henry VII; William (Bishop) Stubbs, Lectures on Mediæval and Modern History , ch. xv, xvi; F. W. Maitland, The Constitutional History of England (1908), Period II. On Scotland: P. H. Brown, History of Scotland , 3 vols. (1899-1909), Vol. , 4 vols. (19011907), Vol. I. On France: A. J. Grant, The French Monarchy, 14831789 , 2 vols.

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