By E. Kaldis (auth.), A. A. Chernov (eds.)

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. A. E. van Arkel, Reine Metalle, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1939). H. Schafer, Chemische Transportreaktionen, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim (1962). I. N. stranski and P. Kaischew, Z. Phys. , 26:100, 114, 312 (1934). F. C. Frank, In: Growth and Perfection of Crystals, New York (1958), p. 411. A. A. Chernov, Kristallografiya, 7:895 (1962); 8:87 (1963). G. Weise, Kristall u. Technik, 2:339 (1967), G. Weise and R. Gunther, J. Crystal Growth, 6:167 (1970). G. Weise and G. Owsian, J. Less-Common Metals, 22:99 (1970).

1. (a) SiC whiskers grown by a VLS method. (b-e) Top of whiskers from (a): (b) normal photograph; (c) absorbed electron image; (d) X-ray image for Si radiation; (e) the same for Fe radiation. Arrhenius plots of growth rates obtained in different experimental setups all yield an activation energy of 90 ± 10 kcal/mole. This value is too high to be determined solely by one or both of the transport processes (c) and (f). Both reactions of step (e) when proceeding separately are catalyzed by iron [10; 11]; therefore it is reasonable to assume that these reactions at the VL interface are not rate controlling.

This tendency for {110} to be combined with {110}, {100}, and {211} as the transport rate increases under otherwise constant thermal conditions is best seen in deposition on singlecrystal hemispheres (Fig. 1). The extent of these surfaces with edge lengths up to 3 mm is appreciably greater than that for the polyhedral crystals. On the other hand, the microscope reveals that these surfaces are not entirely smooth, since there are pits with terraces on the surfaces. The hemispheres produced in open systems [6] show these features only as terminal forms.

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