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A Land of Aching Hearts: The Middle East in the Great War by Leila Tarazi Fawaz

By Leila Tarazi Fawaz

The nice conflict reworked the center East, bringing to an finish 400 years of Ottoman rule in Arab lands whereas giving upward thrust to the center East as we all know it this present day. A century later, the reviews of normal women and men in the course of these calamitous years have light from reminiscence. A Land of Aching Hearts traverses ethnic, classification, and nationwide borders to get well the private tales of the civilians and infantrymen who persevered this cataclysmic event.

between those that suffered have been the folk of larger Syria―comprising glossy Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine―as good because the humans of Turkey, Iraq, and Egypt. past the transferring fortunes of the battlefield, the quarter used to be devastated through a British and French naval blockade made worse by means of Ottoman warfare measures. Famine, illness, inflation, and an inflow of refugees have been daily realities. however the neighborhood populations weren't passive sufferers. Fawaz chronicles the initiative and resilience of civilian émigrés, marketers, draft-dodgers, infantrymen, villagers, and townsmen made up our minds to outlive the battle as top they can. the right combination of ingenuity and practicality usually intended the adaptation among existence and death.

The war’s aftermath proved sour for plenty of survivors. Nationalist aspirations have been quashed as Britain and France divided the center East alongside synthetic borders that also reason resentment. The distress of the nice warfare, and a profound feel of massive sacrifices made in useless, might colour people’s perspectives of politics and the West for the century to come.

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Initially focused on evangelizing nonChristians, they proved more successful at converting Christians of other denominations, mostly the alienated and the Greek Orthodox. Although smaller in number, Jewish communities made a significant impact as well. Small communities of Jewish traders and craftsmen dotted the Middle East and North Africa from Morocco to Yemen, congregating primarily in the coastal towns but also extending into the Syrian and Iraqi interior. These communities fluctuated in size and location, often in response to external events.

Beginning in the 1890s workers began collectively orga nizing with increasing frequency. 67 In Alexandria, the urban crisis affected workers who were both Ottomans (Egyptians but also Turks, Syrians, Armenians, local Jews, and others) and Europeans, as urban growth included several thousand Italians, Greeks, and others. 71 Other forms of protest were also on the rise, but it is not always discernible whether economic discontent, political dissatisfaction, social frustration, or a combination of the three motivated public mobilization.

29 During the course of the nineteenth century, a system of primary, secondary, and collegiate education was therefore created that included technical training and teacher instruction. Moreover, increased mobility allowed educated young men to leave their provinces and complete their education in the prestigious institutions of Istanbul, after which they were recruited into the imperial service. This Ottoman commitment to expanded public education never diminished, even during the trauma of war.

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