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The derived quantities include intensity, impedance, and a variety of coefficients and ratios, some of which are too specialized and, hence, outside the scope of this work, and others are discussed in separate articles. Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level ACOUSTIC VARIABLES MEASUREMENT The science and technology of acoustics encompass sound, ultrasound, and infrasound in all media. There are many specialties in acoustics as well as interrelations to other branches of engineering, physics, and chemistry.

Thus, Ca = V ρ L Rr , ma = 0 , Ra = 2 + Req ρ 0 c2 S S (16) where Rr is the radiation resistance of the neck opening, and Req represents the effect of all damping present in the system, and all other quantities have the previously defined meaning. 127 Ra U Ra P Ca U P ma ma Ca (a) (b) Figure 3. A Helmholtz resonator consisting of acoustic compliance, mass, damping, and radiation resistance (a), and a schematic representation of its electrical equivalent (b). Acoustic Absorption When sound traverses matter, be it solid, liquid, or gaseous, the acoustic intensity decreases with distance.

The strain gauges form the four arms of the bridge. The two extra resistors are used for balancing and for fine-adjustment purposes. This type of arrangement reduces temperature effects. Many accelerometers are manufactured with preamplifiers and other signal-conditioning circuits integrated with the transducer enclosed in the same casing. Some accelerometer preamplifiers include integrators to convert the acceleration proportional outputs to either velocity or displacement proportional signals.

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